We are using cookies to give you the best experience on our site. Cookies are files stored in your browser and are used by most websites to help personalise your web experience.

By continuing to use our website without changing the settings, you are agreeing to our use of cookies.

Find out more

Vitamins A, C and E

Vitamins A, C and E classification

Vitamins A, C and E are essential nutrients which have antioxidant activity. Laboratory and animal studies have found some scientific basis for their use, but current evidence from studies on humans suggests that antioxidant vitamins aren’t effective in treating rheumatoid arthritis. Evidence from trials of the effectiveness of vitamin E in treating osteoarthritis provided mixed results. Results for early trials into the use of vitamin C in treating osteoarthritis are encouraging, but they need confirmation by larger trials.

What are they?

Family: Nutritional supplement
Scientific name: Vitamin A (retinoids), vitamin C (L-ascorbate) and vitamin E (tocopherols and tocotrienols)

Vitamins are nutritional substances which you need in small amounts in your diet. Vitamins A and E are fat-soluble vitamins, meaning they’re stored in your body’s fat cells, but they need to have their levels topped up regularly. Vitamin C is a water-soluble vitamin. Your body stores all water-soluble vitamins except for vitamin B12 for only a brief period of several weeks to several months and then gets rid of them through the urine. This is why you need to take water-soluble vitamins daily.

Vitamins can be found in foods (natural vitamins) or can be produced in laboratories (synthetic vitamins). You can buy vitamin capsules from high-street shops.

How do they work?

Vitamins A, C and E have antioxidant properties. This means they can override harmful molecules, known as free radicals, which are produced within your cells and which may cause tissue damage or disease. Your body produces its own antioxidants but it’s thought that antioxidants in the diet (such as vitamin C) help destroy excess free radicals.

Some laboratory and animal studies have also found that vitamin E may help to treat osteoarthritis by stimulating the growth of cartilage cells. Other studies have found that it has some anti-inflammatory properties.

Studies on vitamin C have found that it can stimulate the production of collagen and proteoglycan (both of which are important parts of joint cartilage) and can protect against the breakdown of cartilage in animal studies.

Are they safe?

Vitamin C is considered to be a very well-tolerated vitamin because if your body can get rid of it through the urine if has too much.

Because your body stores vitamins A and E, having too much of these vitamins can cause health problems. If you take more than 50,000 international units (IU) of vitamin A over a long period, it can cause vitamin A toxicity. Symptoms of this can include:

  • dry skin or rashes
  • bone pain
  • hair loss
  • sleep problems
  • gastrointestinal problems.

Most adults can tolerate up to 100–800 mg a day of vitamin E, but long-term intake of large doses (more than 1,000 mg daily) can cause headaches, nausea, blurred vision and disturbed functions of the thyroid gland. Recently, it has been recommended that high-dose intake of vitamin E (more than 400 mg a day) should be avoided.

We don’t yet have recommended effective and safe doses for use in arthritis and related conditions. Most trials used daily doses of 1,200 mg vitamin E, 50,000 IU vitamin A and 1,000 mg vitamin C.

No serious drug interactions have been reported with a low or medium intake of antioxidant vitamins.


0800 5200 520

Our new helpline: Call us for free information, help and advice on your type of arthritis. Open Mon–Fri 9am–8pm.

All calls are recorded for training and quality purposes

Virtual Assistant

Our new Arthritis Virtual Assistant uses artificial intelligence to answer your arthritis related questions 24/7.

Ask a question
For more information, go to
Arthritis Research UK fund research into the cause, treatment and cure of arthritis. You can support Arthritis Research UK by volunteering, donating or visiting our shops.